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Albert Einstein İngilizce Biyografisi

 
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Albert Einstein İngilizce Biyografisi

 

Albert Einstein İngilizce Hayatı
Albert Einstein İngilizce Kimdir Biyografi


Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany, on March 14,  1879. Six weeks later the family moved to Munich, where he later on  began his schooling at the Luitpold Gymnasium. Later, they moved to  Italy and Albert continued his education at Aarau, Switzerland and in  1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be  trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics. In 1901, the year he  gained his diploma, he acquired Swiss citizenship and, as he was unable  to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant  in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905 he obtained his doctor's degree.

During his stay at the Patent Office, and in his spare time, he produced  much of his remarkable work and in 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent  in Berne. In 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich, in 1911  Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, returning to Zurich in the  following year to fill a similar post. In 1914 he was appointed Director  of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute and Professor in the  University of Berlin. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in  Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political  reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of  Theoretical Physics at Princeton*. He became a United States citizen in  1940 and retired from his post in 1945.

After World War II, Einstein was a leading figure in the World  Government Movement, he was offered the Presidency of the State of  Israel, which he declined, and he collaborated with Dr. Chaim Weizmann  in establishing the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Einstein always appeared to have a clear view of the problems of physics  and the determination to solve them. He had a strategy of his own and  was able to visualize the main stages on the way to his goal. He  regarded his major achievements as mere stepping-stones for the next  advance.

At the start of his scientific work, Einstein realized the inadequacies  of Newtonian mechanics and his special theory of relativity stemmed from  an attempt to reconcile the laws of mechanics with the laws of the  electromagnetic field. He dealt with classical problems of statistical  mechanics and problems in which they were merged with quantum theory:  this led to an explanation of the Brownian movement of molecules. He  investigated the thermal properties of light with a low radiation  density and his observations laid the foundation of the photon theory of  light.

In his early days in Berlin, Einstein postulated that the correct  interpretation of the special theory of relativity must also furnish a  theory of gravitation and in 1916 he published his paper on the general  theory of relativity. During this time he also contributed to the  problems of the theory of radiation and statistical mechanics.

In the 1920´s, Einstein embarked on the construction of unified field  theories, although he continued to work on the probabilistic  interpretation of quantum theory, and he persevered with this work in  America. He contributed to statistical mechanics by his development of  the quantum theory of a monatomic gas and he has also accomplished  valuable work in connection with atomic transition probabilities and  relativistic cosmology.

After his retirement he continued to work towards the unification of the  basic concepts of physics, taking the opposite approach,  geometrisation, to the majority of physicists.

Einstein's researches are, of course, well chronicled and his more  important works include Special Theory of Relativity (1905), Relativity  (English translations, 1920 and 1950), General Theory of Relativity  (1916), Investigations on Theory of Brownian Movement (1926), and The  Evolution of Physics (1938). Among his non-scientific works, About  Zionism (1930), Why War? (1933), My Philosophy (1934), and Out of My  Later Years (1950) are perhaps the most important.

Albert Einstein received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine  and philosophy from many European and American universities. During the  1920´s he lectured in Europe, America and the Far East and he was  awarded Fellowships or Memberships of all the leading scientific  academies throughout the world. He gained numerous awards in recognition  of his work, including the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London  in 1925, and the Franklin Medal of the Franklin Institute in 1935.

Einstein's gifts inevitably resulted in his dwelling much in  intellectual solitude and, for relaxation, music played an important  part in his life. He married Mileva Maric in 1903 and they had a  daughter and two sons; their marriage was dissolved in 1919 and in the  same year he married his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal, who died in 1936. He  died on April 18, 1955 at Princeton, New Jersey.

From Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901-1921, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1967

This autobiography/biography was first published in the book series Les  Prix Nobel. It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures. To  cite this document, always state the source as shown above.

Albert Einstein was formally associated with the Institute for Advanced Study located in Princeton, New Jersey
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